Review of social sciences 2010 N3
The 70th Anniversary of NAS RA Review of Social Sciences
HISTORY AND POLITICAL SCIENCE
Gasparyan R.G. – The Activities of the Armenian Revolutionary Party Dashnaktsutyun in Cilicia at the End of the XIX and the Beginning of the XX Centuries
Melikyan V.G. – Social-Economic and Educational Work of the Trans-Caucasian Commissariat
Torosyan T.S. – On the Importance of Establishing the Status of Kosovo within the Context of Conflict Regulation Principles
Danielyan E.L. – On the Necessity of Protecting Armenian Historical and Civilizational System of Values
Tamazyan V.V. – Self-determination of Nations and World Order
Galstyan T.N. – Civil War in Spain and its Consequences
Matevosyan V.A. – The Role of Elections in Establishing Pluralism in Armenia
Karyan S.M. – The Armenian Issue in H. Tumanyan’s Publications
Aloyan L.A. – Weekly “Armenia” (on the 125th Anniversary)
Muradyan I.S. – On Legal Regulation of Migration Issues in Soviet Armenia
Pakhlyan A.A. – The Impact of Russian-Georgian Relationships on the Foreign Trade in RA
Gevorgyan N.L. – Major Issues at the Present Stage of Tax Reforms in RA
Manasyan A.V. – A New Model of Business Environment Competition Strategy in RA
PHILOSOPHY AND LAW
Vartanova Zh.A. – The Philosophical Perception of Civilization
Hakobyan I.D. – An Attempt to Read Rudolf Steiner’s “The Philosophy of Freedom”
Zakaryan V.A. – Revealing the Implicit Meaning on the Levels of Presupposition and Implication
Melkumyan Yu.G. – The Middle Class in Armenia (Quantitative Analysis and General Characteristics)
Gevorgyan K.G. – The Organization of Family Life at Retirement Age
Galstyan N.M. – The Role of Social Organizations of RA Ethnic Minorities in Retaining Identity
LINGUISTICS AND LITERARY CRITICISM
Dolukhanyan A.G. – Selected Fables by Mekhitar Gosh in French
Kasababova R.S. – The Meaning of “Revolution” Concept in F. Tiutchev’s System of Historical-Philosophical Views
Petrosyan V.Z. – Two Hypotheses by Saussure
Drost-Abgaryan A. – (Germany, Halle) Daniel Varuzhan, Emil Verhaeren and the Armenian Medieval Literature
Meytikhanyan P. – Biblical Onomastics: Mountain Names
Abrahamyan A. – On the Issue of t’ərpan in Armenian Dialects
CULTURE AND ART CRITICISM
Martinenko I.E. (Belarussia, Grodno) – The Status of the World Cultural Heritage Objects
Ghulyan S.A. – Ruben Mamoulyan and Shakespeare’s Hamlet
Kazhoyan R.A. – On the General Theory of Community Development: the Model of the Process
Minasyan M.P. – “Kinto’s” Image in Hovsep Karalyan’s Art
Manaseryan L.L. – Zh. Pitoyev and the Experience of Constructing Another Stage Reality in XX Century Set Design
DEBATES AND DISCUSSIONS
Davtyan G.K. – When the Critic Errs
Khojabekyan V.E. – The First Secretary of NKAR Regional Committee- Baku’s Protégé. The President of USSR Academy of Sciences at the General Convention of the Academy of Sciences of Armenia
Poghosyan V.A. – Soviet Scientists on Karabakh Conflict
Kostandyan E.A. – Vladimir Barkhudaryan. The History of Armenian Colonies in Moscow and St. Petersburg (Mid XVIII century- the Beginning of XX century)
Karapetyan M. S. – John Kirakosyan. The Basis of Independent Statehood and Political Armenian Studies
Kozmoyan A.K. – Lilit Safrastyan. Women’s Problems in Contemporary Iranian Literature
Vardanyan V.H. – Svazyan. The History of Aghvan Land (from Ancient Times to VIII Century)
Sayan T.G. – Vazgen Hambardzumyan. The History of Latinized Armenian Language (14-18 cc.)
Sirunyan T.G. – Vazgen Hambardzumyan. The History of Latinized Armenian Language (14-18 cc.)
Harutunyan G.G. – Beyond the Years
Baloyan H.S. – On the 80th Birth Anniversary of NAS RA Academician Aram Grigoryan
Sarukhanyan N.B. – A Distinctive Figure in Armenian Historiography (on Leo’s 150th Birth Anniversary)
Stepanyan S.S. - An Outstanding Scholar and Great Patriot (on 100th Birth Anniversary of Academician Mkrtich Nersisyan)
THE ACTIVITIES OF THE ARMENIAN REVOLUTIONARY FEDERATION –DASHNAKTSOUTIUN IN CILICIA AT THE END OF THE 19TH AND BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURIES - R. G. GASPARYAN
Armenian national parties emerged at the end of the 19th century. Among other reasons for this, one should mention the increase of violence towards the Armenians, their persecution by the Turkish government, and the threat of their physical annihilation. Thus, the Armenians were compelled to take arms and fight for their freedom. As they were convined that it would be useless to seek help from big states in their fight for freedom, the Armenian society began to look for other ways out. This was the time, when the necessity of creating statehood emerged.
Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsoutiun started its first steps towards establishing party branches and spreading their ideology in Cilicia in mid-1890s, in the days of the revolt of Zeitun, with the intention of raising rebellion in the mountainous areas of Cilicia. Cilicia was selected as the centre for military forces and insurgence. An executive body of Lernavayr (the nickname for Cilicia and the neighbouring areas) was created to head the national liberation movement.
Such outstanding people as Mar (Mikayel Ter Martirosyan), Hrach (Hrayr Tirakyan), Simon Zavaryan, Vardan of Khnasor (Sargis Mehrabyan) developed their activities in Cilicia spreading the ideology of national liberation, awakening national self-consciousness, and establishing party branches.
However, despite the efforts, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation did not succeed in creating a strong network of party members and spreading its ideological influence. The reasons for this were scarce financial means, Cilicia’s physical detachment from Western Armenia, an insufficient number of party workers, and the fact that the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsoutiun, unfortunately, did not have the necessary forces to act with the same scale, strength, and power at all the fronts.
SOCIAL-ECONOMIC AND EDUCATIONAL WORK OF THE TRANS-CAUCASIAN COMMISSARIAT - V. H. MELIKYAN
The Trans-Caucasian Commissariat, based on its declaration, took definite actions towards improving the region.
In the period between 15 November 1917 – 15 January 1918, the Trans-Caucasian Government implemented a series of programs for all commissariats, and adopted decrees and laws. Some constructive activities were also implemented by the Minor Board which was solely responsible for handling everyday economic issues. The commissariat tried to address land issues as well.
The social economic, financial, educational and other sector activities of the Trans-Caucasian Government were underdeveloped as compared to the political developments in the region.
It is worth mentioning that all discussions and decisions adopted on even seemingly “harmless” Caucasian issues tended to be politicized.
ON THE IMPORTANCE OF ESTABLISHING THE STATUS OF KOSOVO WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF CONFLICT REGULATION PRINCIPLES - T. S. TOROSYAN
The publication of the Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice in accordance with International Law of the unilateral declaration of independence of Kosovo re-launched discussions on conflict resolution within the framework of the International Law. In this respect, the process of determining Kosovo’s final status acquires special weight. The analysis of trends, principal events and results of this process demonstrates the relevance of these factors for resolving other conflicts as well.
In particular, the process of determining Kosovo’s final status demonstrates the priority of determination of final status in the process of conflict resolution and the significance of participation of all parties in all the stages of resolution process to secure the success of the process.
ON THE NECESSITY OF PROTECTING ARMENIAN HISTORICAL AND CIVILIZATIONAL SYSTEM OF VALUES - E. L. DANIELYAN
Scientific and ideological defense of the Armenian holistic civilizational system of values from the perspective of Armenian Studies is one of the tasks of the Armenian historiography. The course of the Armenian statehood’s development in the natural-historic environment of the Armenian Highland has been witnessed since the 8th-4th millennia B.C. by ethno-spiritual, cultural and lingual, social and political processes and testified by veritable archaeological materials and historic-material monuments, and since the 3rd millennium by written records.
It is essential that the defense of the civilizational values of ancient and medieval Armenia be included into the state program. In this respect, an organization of an international conference “The Armenian Civilizational Heritage and “The Silk Road” addressing the commercial-economic contribution of Armenia to the world civilization would be helpful.
SELF-DETERMINATION OF NATIONS AND WORLD ORDER - V. V. TAMAZYAN
The right of nation’s self-determination is one of the fundamental principles within international law. In the period when a new nation rises and takes up its organization and the process of independence, the above-mentioned principle offers us a chance to interpret it in new ways.
The present paper seeks to provide insights into some important documents where the role and function of this principle within the international law are mentioned. It also considers some aspects of the relations between the principles of territorial integrity and self-determination and reflects on the problem of independence and the self-determination right of the nation of Nagorno-Karabakh.
CIVIL WAR IN SPAIN AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ON THE FURTHER STATE FORMATION - T. N.GALSTYAN
The Civil war which started between 1936-1939 in Spain, had originated between the second Spanish Republic and the rebels. The leader of the rebels was General Franco. The Civil War between’’ the two Spains’’ was a result of complex political, economic and cultural discords. Though Spain had suffered huge losses by the end of the war, the bases of the Spanish Republic and the Civil Society were established in that period. The Civil war in Spain marked a serious transition in the development of the civil society in Spain and its economy.
THE ROLE OF ELECTIONS IN ESTABLISHING PLURALISM IN ARMENIA - V. A. MATEVOSYAN
The major indicators of the multiparty system and party institutionalization are their participation or non-participation in elections. In this connection, a comparative analysis of results of elections in National Assembly in 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2007 was made. The study revealed the instability of participation and representation of parties in the Parliament, and consequently the regular departure of some parties from a political field and the emergence of new ones.
The paper concludes that in order to improve the efficiency of democratization, a real multiparty system is required, which is impossible without qualitative changes in the process of elections.
UNKNOWN PAGES IN THE FIELD OF LEGAL REGULATION OF MIGRATION ISSUES IN SOVIET ARMENIA - I. S. MURADYAN
The majority of migration processes during the Soviet period were implemented through secret legal acts. The process if migration was related to prior citizenship, social origin, availability of one’s relatives, etc. The migration process of the mentioned period was a complicated organizational system and mostly was based on a group migration and on interconnected solidarity of group members.
It is worth mentioning a series of “top secret” legal acts, which were planned to be implemented in view of recommencing military activities on the Caucasian stage, aimed at proscribing the region from Armenians. According to those acts, more than 400 000 Armenians were to be evicted from their homeland, resettle in North Caucasus and other regions of the Soviet Union.
Most of those acts had been caused by the anti-Armenian activities of the Young Turks and Kemalists, as well as three-sided Turk-Sion-Bolshevik tight cooperation.
THE IMPACT OF RUSSIAN-GEORGIAN RELATIONSHIPS ON THE FOREIGN TRADE IN RA - A. A. PAKHLYAN
Georgia plays a significant role in Armenia’s foreign trade relations. Each political or economic problem arising in our neighbouring country directly affects our foreign trade.
Over the recent years, some trade and economic losses of Armenia have been caused by tense relations between Georgia and Russia.
Russian embargo used against Georgian wine and mineral water could promote the Armenian exports of similar products. However, since the embargo, the exports of Armenian wine and mineral water to Russia have increased 3,5 times and 2,7 times respectively, Armenia could not cover the “shortage” of Georgian beverages in the Russian market. Besides insufficient export volumes and weak quality, one should also mention the closure of the land route to Russia, which greatly limited the export opportunities of Armenia.
MAJOR ISSUES AT THE PRESENT STAGE OF TAX REFORMS IN RA AND WAYS OF THEIR SOLUTION - N. L. GEVORGYAN
It is obvious that nowadays it is required to have a fundamental general economic policy, where an essential role is given to the state.
When forming up the income part of the state budget in our republic, it is necessary to take into account the fact that the implemented tax policy in the country is far from the ideal model. The tax load is sufficiently high for the transition period, the legislation is too complicated, whereas the professional and technical saturation of tax services is noticeably low. In these conditions, some tax payers bear the whole tax pressure, while some others evade taxes.
Other than the above-mentioned, when implementing tax reforms, one should enforce a flexible mechanism of tax privilege towards investments in production, new technologies, science and education development spheres, provide the companies that have launched their own products in the foreign markets with “tax vacations” in the initial period, to mitigate the tax load through the enlargement of tax basis, to adopt a varied approach to the tax rates in various fields of economy.
In the conditions of weak tax administration, the mitigation of tax load should be accompanied with the simplification of tax system, which will consider tightening the supervision over taxes. It is also necessary to change the ratio of direct and indirect taxes in the structure of tax incomes of the state budget. The specific weight of direct taxes should be gradually increased in relation to indirect taxes.
A NEW MODEL OF BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT COMPETITION STRATEGY IN RA - A.V. MANASYAN
The actual challenges of the global market are unsustainable for the developing world. Obviously, the developing world includes the countries of the post war and/or economic transaction period, which are less powered than the developed ones. This impedes equal rival opportunities in the global market.
The paper dwells on the new models for competitive strategy development that can solve the aforementioned problems as effectively as possible.
THE PHILOSOPHICAL PERCEPTION OF CIVILIZATION - VARTANOVA J. A.
Civilization is one of the core concepts in science. Its essence implies social progress and is determined by the criterion of social welfare. Civilization also entails the development of human social essence. Prosperity, law and order are the contributing factors that make the society civilized.
Hence, civilization comprises a socio-cultural complex, form of life, and interaction between cultures that are characteristic of the specific period.
At present, the modern world is regarded as a system of diverse civilizations.
AN ATTEMPT TO READ RUDOLF STEINER’S “THE PHILOSOPHY OF FREEDOM” - I. D. HAKOBYAN
“It is no longer enough merely to believe, we want to know…” This is Rudolph Steiner’s main motto of philosophy of freedom that leads him to conclusions fraught with far-reaching consequences.
Meanwhile, such indivisible realities of our world as freedom, light, truth, life can be studied within the framework of philosophy and natural sciences by applying intellect or intuition. At the same time, it is impossible to master them, since it is not a school providing knowledge but life itself.
REVEALING THE IMPLICIT MEANING ON THE LEVELS OF PRESUPPOSITION AND IMPLICATION - V. A. ZAKARYAN
The present paper seeks to touch upon the two levels of the implicit meaning on the basis of the scheme of classification of meanings. Taking into consideration the results of the French linguistic school, the author intends to classify presupposition as a language phenomenon and presumption as a speech phenomenon, as well as considers their relations with the explicit meaning.
The paper argues that presupposition is not subject to negation, refers to the past and is closely related to the syntactic structure of the utterance, whereas presumption is subject to negation, leads the addressee to the conclusion, possesses an additional meaning, results from the addressee's reflections on the circumstances of the utterance, is a rhetorical phenomenon and is not marked in the sentence.
The provided examples demonstrate that presupposition and presumption are interrelated; presupposition is a constituent of the meaning of the utterance and presumption refers to the way this meaning could be interpreted by the addressee.
THE MIDDLE CLASS IN ARMENIA (Quantitative Analysis and General Characteristics) - YU. G. MELKUMYAN
The problems of social stratification have been actual since ancient times. Such issues are present in Plato’s and Aristotle’s theories. P. Bourdieu, D. Bell, A. Inkels, and others have also discussed and analyzed the structure of postindustrial societies.
The analyses of different theories on the issue of stratification distinctly show that the development of human civilization results in increasing the number of social strata and classes. The society thus becomes more structured.
Dwelling on the size of middle class in postindustrial societies, the sociologists present the structure of contemporary societies as follows: the rich constitute 5-6% of the society, 14-15% are the poor, and 80% make the middle class.
The scientists believe such structure to guarantee social stability. In 2010, an attempt was made to measure and to describe the most important characteristics of the middle class in Armenia through sociological research. Based on the subjective self-identification criteria of the respondents, the following data were retrieved: 14.8% of the respondents identify themselves as poor, 78.5% as middle class, and 6.7% as rich. Obviously, the empiric data correspond to the theoretical model of a rhombus- shaped social structure.
The results of the research are available to show that the stable employment is the basic quality of the middle class representative, which is the consequence of an appropriate educational level, profession and qualification. Promotion opportunities are based on the social network and personal contacts.
The paper concludes that that the rhombus-shaped structure of postindustrial society is characteristic of the contemporary Armenian society, and the characteristics of middle class in Armenia are considerably different from the European one.
THE ORGANIZATION OF FAMILY LIFE AT RETIREMENT AGE - K.G. GEVORGYAN
The present paper seeks to analyze the interfamily relations within the third generation. It relies on the theory of social exchange by J. Homans, P. Blau and R. Emerson, claiming that elderly people can be modeled through motivation or rewards/ penalties. Thus, those elderly people whose actions were awarded are more likely to repeat those actions in the future. When facing a choice between two alternatives, the elderly people select the option with a greater outcome.
The analysis of the results of the study reveal that all members of the family group make efforts to reach agreement on organizing and running the family life. The structure of family interactions breeds respect and tolerance in all members, regardless of age. If not, younger family members achieve their goals and remember the elderly members only at the last moment.
Thus, the knowledge of everyday experience in family relations with elderly people offers one an opportunity to work constructively to resolve intra-family conflicts.
THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS OF RA ETHNIC MINORITIES IN RETAINING IDENTITY - N. M. GALSTYAN
RA regulation offers ethnic minorities an opportunity to establish NGOs, to promote their national values without such barriers as language, religion, traditions. Being far away from their historical lands, living in a foreign ethnic environment, RA ethnic minorities consider it important to identify what the role of those NGOs is in maintaining their ethnic identity and national values, whether their members are aware of the NGOs’ activities and how they evaluate it. The ethnic minorities also speculate on NGOs’ contribution to building a civil society in RA, to social life, to providing solutions to the “Armenian” problems, etc.
The paper concludes that though the NGOs established by ethnic minorities launch activities to retain and promote their national identity, cultural values, their role is not so significant in building a civil society in RA.
SELECTED FABLES BY MEKHITAR GOSH IN FRENCH - A.G. DOLUKHANYAN
In 1902, the French outstanding Armenologist Frederic Macler published his translated version of “Selected fables by Mekhitar Gosh” with his preface in the periodical “Journal Asiatique”.
In the preface, F. Macler dwells on the fabulist’s life and work, providing quotes by various Armenologists on the writer’s work.
F. Macler refers to Mechitar Gosh as a great innovator, as he was the first to have made fable personages out of the representatives of vegetable kingdom.
THE MEANING OF “REVOLUTION” CONCEPT IN F. TIUTCHEV’S SYSTEM OF HISTORICAL-PHILOSOPHICAL VIEWS - R.S. KASABABOVA
The concept of “Revolution”, which embraces social, political, historical, and religious aspects, is one of the key points in Fyodor Tiutchev’s system of historical and philosophical views.
Tiutchev touches upon the topic of revolution reverberating in the years of 1848-1849 in his political essays and letters and concludes that behind any revolutionary unrest lie egotism and desire for power. The poet terms revolution as a mere “autocracy of human ego” and believes its emergence in the society to be due to the spiritual degradation of the West and the impoverishment of faith.
The writer believes the sources of revolution to be attributed to the secession of the Roman Catholic Church from the Ecumenical Church and its aspiration for temporal power. The secession of the Western Church from true faith led the society into the festivities of egotism and made it disobey any power including the spiritual one. Tiutchev defies anti-Christian maxims of revolution by the true faith lying in the bases of the Russian Orthodox Church and Russian national spirit.
UPON TWO SAUSSURIAN HYPOTHESES - V. Z. PETROSYAN
The “Study of General Linguistics” by F. de Saussure is one of the guidelines in theoretical linguistics. The study is particularly famous for a number of its hypotheses, the discussions of which have not only essentially promoted the linguistic mentality of the XX century, but also created prerequisites towards the creation of new linguistic directions and schools.
The paper highlights case studies of two main Saussurian hypotheses. In revealing the main points of the hypotheses, the author draws important parallels between Saussurian and Humboldtian views.
DANIEL VARUZHAN, EMIL VERHAEREN AND THE ARMENIAN MEDIEVAL LITERATURE (Dedicated to Daniel Varuzhan’s 125th birth anniversary) - A. I DROST-ABGARYAN (Germany, Halle)
Both Daniel Varuzhan (1884-1915) and Emil Verhaeren (1855-1916) are very important figures in their national literature, already internationally known during their lifetime through translations into many languages.
Each of these poets drew his creative energy from the beauty of the native nature, from the heroic past of the Flemish or Armenian ancestors. Despite the benefits of good classical education they received in Catholic colleges, both authors came later into conflict with the contradictions within Christianity and turned to pre-Christian images and models for their poetic inspiration.
BIBLICAL ONOMASTICS: MOUNTAIN NAMES - P.G. MEYTIKHANYAN
Mountain names are of great importance in studying the proper names used in the Bible. As they are reminiscent of the history of the Jews, and other tribes and people, the study of these names reveals many interesting facts.
The study of mountain names is performed on the basis of comparing them with their Greek counterparts. It is worth mentioning that the mountain name “Ararat” was the first proper name used in the Bible among mountain names of Hebrew origin. The name has a special meaning and plays a great role for the Armenians.
ON THE ISSUE OF T’ƏRPAN IN ARMENIAN DIALECTS - A.A. ABRAHAMYAN
In the Armenian dialects, the concept "scythe" is fixed in several verbal variants, including the word name t‘әrpan // t‘әrp'an. In the materials of “The map of the Armenian Dialectology”, this word name was fixed approximately in 15 sub-dialects of the Armenian dialects and basically includes dialects of the western groupings. The word is believed to derive its origin from the Turkish word tırpan. As to the source of Turkish borrowing, it goes back to the Greek form δρέπανον. The Greek form of this word is present in a number of word-formations of many languages which somehow are related to mangał and gerandi. Nevertheless, these words or their counterparts are not registered in modern Armenian dictionaries. Even such Armenian counterparts of some foreign words as gerandaptuł /Drépanocarpe/, gerandełĵyur /Drépanocère/, gerandaterew /Drépanophylle/, gerandaberan /Drépanostome/, gerandat‘irù /Drépanoptéryx/) that were recorded in G. Lusinyan’s French-Armenian dictionary in 1909, have not been recorded in modern Armenian dictionaries, whereas the aforementioned words could enrich the present word stock of the Armenian language.
The paper suggests including mangałat‘it‘erù /Drepana falcataria/, mangałamamurù /Drepanocladus uncinatus/, mangałafikus /Drepanophycus/, mangałabambuk /Drepanostachyum/, mangałabĵĵi hiwandut‘yun /Drepanocytose/into the word-stock of the modem Armenian language.
THE STATUS OF THE WORLD CULTURAL HERITAGE OBJECTS - I. E. MARTINENKO (Belarussia, Grodno)
World Cultural Heritage is a universal heritage, which plays an important role in promoting cultural exchanges, mutual understanding and common prosperity among people from various countries and of diverse historical, religious, and cultural background.
The international legal mechanism of protecting the world cultural heritage is stipulated by international agreements, as well as by existing special conventions of international bodies authorized by the power of monitoring.
The paper suggests establishing a strict liability for crimes and administrative violations committed against the monuments on the List of World Cultural and Natural Heritage by UNESCO, or proposed for inclusion into this list.
RUBEN MAMOULIAN AND SHAKESPEARE’S HAMLET - S. A. GULYAN
In 1965, a book appeared in the bookshops of Los Angeles, which immediately became popular with the readers in the USA. It was “Shakespeare’s Hamlet. A New Version” by Rouben Mamoulian.
Mamoulian took liking to Shakespeare still at a young age. When he finally read “Hamlet” in English, he was discouraged. He understood only half of the text of the tragedy and ascribed his failure to his imperfect command of English. Later, however, when he improved his English so much that he could read works by other great writers in English, the majority of Shakespearean words still remained incomprehensible to him. It took him a long time to understand all the lines.
Hence, he took the liberty of revising the text of the tragedy and made revisions by replacing about 2000 words with their modern equivalents, rewriting nearly 100 lines, eliminating approximately 510 lines, changing the spelling of some words throughout the play, revising punctuation, dividing the play into four acts instead of five, determining Hamlet’s age as twenty, instead of thirty, providing stage directions for the play, etc.
ON THE GENERAL THEORY OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: THE MODEL OF THE PROCESS - H. R. KAZHOYAN
There is a need to research the factors influencing community development to better understand the process of democratic transformation of the modern Armenian society. The factors driving community development are: leadership, volunteerism, institutional development and resource management, whilst social change is its ultimate objective and final criterion. Community development is not different from the centralised planning – by developing horizontal and vertical approaches simultaneously and providing an opportunity for public participation, the process of community development completes the overall picture of the development of Armenian society.
“KINTO’S” IMAGE IN HOVSEP KARALYAN’S ART - M. P. MINASYAN
“Kinto” was one of the most colorful figures of old Tbilisi and symbolized peculiar philosophy, psychology and mode of life. Kintos frequented streets, bazaars, shops, and city parks.
With Hovsep Karalyan, the word “kinto” assumed an entirely different meaning. In his films, the artist pictured the people who depicted the life in Tbilisi streets. Having watched Karalyan’s works, one feels like a child whose life is full of feasts and mysterious charm.
ZH. PITOYEV AND THE EXPERIENCE OF CONSTRUCTING ANOTHER STAGE REALITY IN XX CENTURY SET DESIGN - L. L. MANASERYAN
G. Pitoyev’s pieces of set design stylistically resembled those of the Russian set design school. This style, however, did not attract followers in France, as it contradicted the aesthetic quest and tendencies that dominated the French stage in this period. Presumably, the difference between those met is accounted for by the diversity in world outlooks.
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