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Descriptive Notes

Review of social sciences 2010 N1 - 2

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND POLITICAL SCIENCE

Torosyan T.S. – The Second Stage of “The New Activism” in Turkey’s Foreign Policy
Gasparyan R.H. – Massacres and Self-defense Battles of Cilician Armenians from 1894 to 1896
Khachatryan K.H. – The Issue of Soviet Armenian Borders in Soviet-Turkish Relations in 1921 (Moscow and Kars Conferences)
Ayvazyan A.M. – Demographic Situation in Karabagh between 1710 and 1720
Miroghlu Armaveni (Turkey, Istanbul ) – National Minorities in the Turkish Republic in 1923-1939
Gevorgyan Z.H. – Italian Merchantry in Cilician Armenia (XIII-XIV cc.)
Vardanyan A.M. – The Formation of Aghvan Marzpanutyun
Khorikyan H.G. – The Territory and borders of Cappadocia in Achaemenid Persia
Yeghiazaryan A.S. – The Abkhazian Campaign of Armenian King, Smbat I
Arakelyan K.M. – The Historiography of the Armenian Diaspora on the Armenian Haydukyan Movement
Harutunyan K.A. – Reorganizing the Industry of Nagorno Karabagh Autonomous Region to Military Requirements (1941-1942)
Stepanyan N.R. – NEP and Stratification of the Peasantry

ECONOMICS

Marzpanyan H.A. – The Evolution and Historical Perspective of Privatization and Appropriation Types
Torosyan K.A., Diloyan S.A. – On Some Peculiarities of Microeconomics (scientific-methodological aspect)
Azizbekyan V.S. – The Process of Implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards in RA
Simonyan V.V. – Financial Analysis in Market Economy

PHILOSOPHY AND LAW

Dilbandyan S.A. – The Guarantee of the Individual’s Legitimate Interests in Criminal Trial
Kocharyan H.J. – Logical Relations between Compound Propositions and their Peculiarities

SOCIOLOGY

Melkumyan Yu.G. – Sociological Approaches to Measuring Middle Class (the Characteristics of the Middle Class in the Present Stage of RA)
Arakelyan I.A. – International Labour Migration from the Standpoint of Glo- balization
Khachatryan S. E. – Gender Identity in the Context of Social-Political Transformations of the Armenian Society
Abrahamyan H.B. – Social Security Issues of Artsakh Population (2000-2006)

LINGUISTICS AND LITERARY CRITICISM

Ter-Minasyan A.A. – Pun in Jora (Gevorg) Harutunyan’s Comedy “Ghazar Goes to War”
Zulumyan B.S. (RF, Moscow) – Symbolism in the Work by Yeghishe Charents
Aghajanyan S.A. – The Narrator in the Prose by Gurgen Mahari
Margaryan M.M., Zakaryan M.G. – Man as a Supreme Performer in Gr. Narekatsi’s Philosophy
Safrastyan L. M. – The Image of an Armenian in the Contemporary Iranian Literature
Aktokmakyan Maral (Turkey, Istanbul) – Comparative Study of Charlotte Brontë’s “Jane Eyre” and Srpuhi Dussap’s “Mayda”
Ghukasyan S.V. – Yes-No Questions in the Eastern Armenian and Old Armenian Gospels of Luke
Tonoyan S.H. – The Biblical Sources in William Saroyan's Work
Musayelyan H.G. – Inner Prospects of a Poetic Text (On Some Structural Features of the Armenian Poetry in the 1970-s)
Yerznkyan R.A. – The Stylistic Value of Idioms in Hamo Sahyan's Poetry
Abrahamyan A. A. – Word names of the concept “Raker” in the Armenian Dialects
Hovhanissian T.B. – Folklore Parallels in the tragedy “Romeo and Juliet”

CULTURE AND ART CRITICISM

Aghasyan A.V. – Yervand Oskan and his Contribution to the Academic Armenian and Turkish Sculpture
Hakobyan Z.A. – Steles in Armenia and Georgia: On Common Cultural Aspects in the early-Christian Period
Minasyan M.P. – Art Genre in the Pictures by Joseph Qaralyan

ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

Khachatryan J. D., Hakobyan N.F. – Capital City of Tigranakert
Kochar N.H., Mirzoyan K.P. – The Hamshen Armenians as an Integral Part of the Armenian Ethnos

DEBATES AND DISCUSSIONS

Stepanyan S.S. – Armin Wegner: Great Philanthrope and Contributor to Armenians
Musheghyan A.V. – Though Armin Wegner is in no Need of Protection

PUBLICATIONS

Sahakyan R. O. – The Statements of a Witness on the Armenian Massacres in Mush. The Report of the Head of the Intelligence Division of the Armenian Army Tigran Devoyan on the Battle Staff Turkish Army

BOOK REVIEWS

Zulalyan M.K. – Nikolay Hovhannisyan. The Armenian Genocide. Armenocide – the Most Genocidal Genocide: in Ten Languages of the World
Poghosyan V.A. – M. Karapetyan, E. Gevorgyan, E. Melkonyan. Soviet Armenian Historiography of the National Armenian Liberation Movement in the Second Half of the XIX century (1921-1991)
Avagyan A.V. – Ararart Aghasyan. The Everlasting Lantern of Katchaz
Margaryan G.S. – Anna Asatryan. “Zemireh” -Tigran Chukhajian’s Swan Song
Vardanyan V.M. – Hamlet Davtyan. Unknown Vardanants War
Vartanova J.A. – Armen Grigoryan. The First, Second and the Third Man
Mkhitaryan S.M. – Aelita Dolukhanyan. Episodes from the History of Armenian Literary Criticism
Avagyan A.G. – Grigor Arshakyan. The Policy of Turkey in the South Caucasus in 1991-2001

OUR JUBILEES

Kharatyan A.A. – The Value of a Scientist (on Academician M.K. Zulalyan’s 80th birth Anniversary)
Kertmenjyan D.G. – Productive Life (on Murad Hasratyan’s 75th birth Anniversary) …..521
Geghamyan G.M. – Norayr Sarukhanyan: Scientist and Publicist (on the 75th birth Anniversary)
Minasyan E.G. – The Honourable Scientist (on Academician Gevorg Gharibjanyan’s 90th birth Anniversary)


SECOND PHASE OF THE “NEW ACTIVISM” ERA IN TURKISH FOREIGN POLICY - TOROSYAN T.

Analysis of the theoretical basis of Turkish foreign policy and results of its practical implementation in post-Soviet phase shows that despite the announcements of its Foreign Minister on the development and implementation of a principally new foreign policy concept, the foreign policy of Ankara continues to be based on principles that have remained unchanged for decades. The particular feature of this policy is that it is situation-based and this approach for numerous times has proved itself to be successful for Ankara in the past. The principally new geo-political situation in the region after the five-day war in 2008 has created new challenges for the countries of the region. The post-war developments showed that situation-based policy sometimes fails in face of new challenges. It is worth to mention that such type of policy was used both by Turkey and Armenia that were at that time engaged in the process of regulation of Armenian-Turkish relations. Analysis of the tendencies of the developments in the framework of this process shows that hopes for a good result in overcoming new challenges are realistic for the party that will immediately and fundamentally reconsider its foreign policy through implementation of methods of strategic planning and scrupulous study of problematic issues.


MASSACRES AND SELF-DEFENSIVE BATTLES OF CILICIAN ARMENIANS FROM 1894 TO 1896 - GASPARYAN R. H.

As a result of the anti-Armenian policy of the Ottoman government geared towards annihilation of the Armenian population, Western Armenians appeared in a very grave situation. Being convinced that the project of “May reforms” would remain on paper because of the disagreement between the big countries, the sultan decided to root out the complaints of the Armenians by new, unprecedented massacres. Among the Turkish nationalist ruling clique, a notion was being shaped, according to which it was necessary that the Armenian population be massacred to ensure political, territorial, and national integrity. The first phase of the Armenian genocide was launched. The massacres of 1890s and those of Cilicia in 1906 were the main rehearsals before the Great Genocide in terms of choosing, clarifying, working out, and implementing the necessary mechanisms. Slaughters were organized in Ayntap, Marash, Kishifly, Enterun, Shivilik, Shar, Kilis, Birejik, and many other places. Cilicain Armenians, compared to the Armenians from other districts, escaped from mass annihilation. This had its objective reasons, one of them being the rebellion of Zeitun, which not only played a great role in terms of evolving self-defensive battles, but also made the Turkish authorities not to expand the wave of massacres in the vilayets of Adana and Aleppo under the threat of expanding the rebellion all over Cilicia.
In addition to Zeitun, Cilician Armenians conducted self-defensive battles in a number of other places thus proving that only through such heroic struggle a nation can create its freedom and gain the right to survive and live.


THE QUESTION OF BORDERS OF SOVIET ARMENIA IN THE CONTEXT OF SOVIET-TURKISH RELATIONS IN 1921 (MOSCOW AND KARS CONFERENCES) - KHACHATRYAN K. H.

The essay, on the historical background of the period under scrutiny, considers the question of the Armenian territories and the Armenian-Turkish territorial delimitation in the area of Eastern policy of the Soviet Russia and the Soviet-Kemalist relations in 1921.
It is shown that despite some diplomatic efforts by the government of the Soviet Armenia to find a viable solution to the Armenian question, the Moscow’s Russian-Turkish Treaty of March 16th, 1921, the Bolsheviks illegitimately (the question was determined without any representation from the Armenian side and no one party to the treaty had any legal powers given by the Armenian side) ceded to Turkey the Armenian ancient territories of Kars and Ardagan, and Sumarlinski district (along with the holy for the Armenians Mount Ararat.) Moreover, under the direct protectorate of Soviet Azerbaijan, on the rights of an autonomous region, Nakhichevan district was also transferred over to Azerbaijan (in early July of 1921, on the same unlawful basis, the Bolsheviks also handed Nagorno Karabakh under Azerbaijan’s jurisdiction.)
Subsequently, the Armenian delegation, having no real power succumbed under enormous Soviet pressure and was forced to sign the Moscow’s Russian-Turkish illegal agreement.
Accordingly, since the Armenian side considers the treaty to be illegitimate, it is bound by no legal international obligations for no sovereign country should be obligated to carry out provisions of an illegally imposed document.
Co conclude, in the issue of the Armenian-Turkish and Armenian-Azerbaijani territorial delimitation, the Soviet Russia did not protect the interests of the Armenian state and Armenian people sacrificing their national interests for the sake of cooperation with the Kemalist Turkey’s prospects on its eastern policy.


THE DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION IN KARABAKH IN THE 1710-1720s - AYVAZYAN A. M.

The article analyzes the historical evidence on the demographic situation in Karabakh in the 1710-20s. While counting the population of Karabakh, the author notes that in the 18th century Karabakh included also some peripheral territories which, in 1923, were left out of the newly-drawn boundaries of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO). These Armenian territories were situated around NKAO's whole perimeter along the natural geographical border. These comprised Gyulistan (formerly Shahumian district of NKAO), Getashen (currently Chaykend), Getabek and Karahat (currently Dashkesan) regions to the north and north-west, Karavachar (Kelbajar) to the west as well as the southern part of the Dizak melikdom (currently, Hadrut district) lying to the south as far as the Arax river.
Thus, Minas Tigranian, a representative of the Armenian liberation movement in Russia, after completing his secret mission to Persian Armenia ordered by the Russian Tsar Peter the Great in 1716, stated in a report, dated March 14, 1717: "Surrounding the Gandzasar monastery (i. e. in Karabakh), that [i. e. Gandzasar] patriarch has under his [religious] authority 900 villages, and these are big villages, with 100, 200, 300, 400 and more households. It is a five-day journey on packed horses from Gandzasar to the monastery of Echmiadzin, where the other patriarch resides (i.e. Catholicos of All Armenians). The latter has even more villages under his authority than the Patriarch Yesayi has, but he [i. e. Minas] does not know their exact number. ...Altogether, under the authority of these two patriarchs there are some 200,000 [households] of Armenians, the merchants and the peasantry."
On 5 November 1724, the Karabakh Armenian envoys made the following statement to the Russian court in St. Petersburg: "In Karabakh province alone, the Armenian nation, the military and all others, counts for 100,000 households; not counting the other Armenian province, Kapan, which is situated between Erivan and Karabakh... and the Armenian people of that Kapan province is more numerous than in Karabakh, and they are predominantly merchants."
Taking five souls as the smallest least number for an Armenian household in the beginning of the 18th century, the entire population of what could be called “greater” Karabakh is estimated about 500,000 souls in 1724. The calculation includes into these 100,000 households living in Karabakh in 1724, the Armenian part of population of the city of Ganja (Gandzak) and the surrounding Armenian villages. During and after the Turkish army's unsuccessful attack on Ganja in October 1723, the majority of the population of Ganja, both Armenians and Muslims, abandoned the city. As the Armenian priest Alexander was writing from Shamakhi on December 20, 1723, already at that junction, almost all Armenians of Ganja had left for Karabakh.
The subsequent analysis, including the reverse calculation of the historical evidence, corroborates that 500,000 people is a reliable approximate number for the population of Karabakh in the 1710-1720s.


NATIONAL MINORITIES IN THE TURKISH REPUBLIC IN 1923-1939 - MIROGHLU ARMAVENI (TURKEY, ISTANBUL)

Due to political and ideological reasons, the non-Muslim citizens of Turkey (i.e., Greeks, Armenians, Jews) were considered to be “national minorities”. It is noteworthy, that during the early years of the Republic, the Kemalist nationalism instituted policies of suppressing non-Turkish national identities by forcing the minorities to learn Turkish and assimilate to the Turkish culture. On the basis of the law that came into force in June of 1933, the government abolished national and people’s assemblies, district and educational councils and school charity boards of national minorities. The rights of the patriarchs of the Armenian and Greek churches as well as Jewish spiritual leader khakhamabet were limited to those of a low-ranking clergyman. Laws pertaining to 'last-names', 'outfits' as well as 'vakif' were passed for the same purpose and further limited the national and religious rights of the former ‘millets’.


ITALIAN MERCHANTS IN THE KINGDOM OF CILICIAN ARMENIA (XIII-XIV cent.) - GEVORGYAN Z. H.

Studying notarial acts drawn up in Ayas and Cypriot Famagusta and then moved to the Italian archives, which are the main sourcebasis for the study of European merchant communities of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, can be identified names of hundreds of merchants from many cities from all over the territory of Italy.
Various Italian buildings in the cities of Cilicia, some cases of their marriages with Armenian women, and finally many testaments made by Italians in Ayas are credible evidences for that in the second half of the XIII century and in the first half of the XIV century in Cilician Armenia always existed numerous Italian merchant population.


THE FORMATION OF AGHVAN REGION - VARDANYAN A. M.

After the Persian court had suppressed the anti-Persian upheaval in the Transcaucasian region in the fifties and sixties, Vache II, King of Aghvan, was dethroned in 461.
The Persian King Peroz (457-484), claiming his rights, trumped the political map of the area and annexed Armenian provinces Utiq and Artsakh to Aghvan, thus establishing a new administrative-political unit which also comprised Caspian provinces.


THE TERRITORY AND BOUNDARIES OF CAPPADOCIA IN ACHEMENID PERSIA - KHORIKYAN H. G.

Cappadocia was one of the important districts of the Achaemenian Empire in the VI-IV centuries B. C. The comprehensive investigation of the ancient sources gives a chance to make historical-geographical accurate definitions, clarification of its boundaries. In the article we come to the conclusion, that 3th Satrapy (Cappadocia) wasn’t a stable administrative unit and its boundaries were changed.


ABKHAZIAN CAMPAIGN OF ARMENIAN KING SMBAT I - YEGHIAZARYAN A. S.

Abkhazian campaign of Smbat I (890-914) was held in 906. King of Abkhazia Constantin III (893- 929) occupied the Principality of Kakhet and also some territories of the Kingdom of Kgharjk, which were parts of the Kingdom of the Armenian Bagratids. As a result of the campaign the king of Abkhazia was taken prisoner, and the Armenian army occupied the Kingdom of Abkhazia. The Armenian King appointed his vice royal in Abkhazian Kingdom. Later Constantin III recognized the superiority of Smbat I and was given freedom. During the period of Abkhazian campaign the largest part of Great Armenia, the Kingdom of Kgharjk, Georgia, the Principality of Kakhet, Aluank up to the Big Caucasus Mountain Range were included in the Armenian Bagratids Kingdom.


THE APROACHES OF THE ARMENIAN DIASPORA`S HISTORIOGRAPHY TOWARDS THE ARMENIAN PARTISAN MOVEMENT - ARAKELYAN K. M.

The goal of the article is to reved and bring o light the opinions and estimation of the Armenian historians of Diaspora, which are reflected in their works, and which are connected with the national liberation /partisan, fidai/ movement against the ottoman despotism by the Western Armenians at the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th centuries.
The partisan movement, being considered as a type of the national liberation struggle, is very important in the context of the international law of nations to self-determination.
So the article is very significant not only from the point of the history, but also from the point of international law, of the execution of nations free self-determination and of the increasing people`s knowledge about law.


THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE INDUSTRY OF NAGORNO-KARABAGH AUTONOMOUS REGION FOR MILITARY NEEDS - HARUTYUNYAN K. A.

The article devoted to the problem of the reconstruction of the industry of N-K autonomous region during the great Patriotic War. From the very first days of the war the government managed to reconstruct the industry. All the plants began making war materials. This region started production of goods necessary for artillery, surgery, special kinds of wood, leather, fabrics for parachutes, soap, matches, clothes for soldiers. To reach the goal working day lasted for 10-12 hours. Women, the old and the young replaced the mobilized soldiers. In Stepanakert Mechanical plant set a smelting work shop where they produced 1-3 ton melting copper and 3-10 ton of cast.
In Hadrut and Mardakert regions was organized the extraction for military purposes.
Thus, due to good organization and heroic work of the people in short time this region became a particular military camp which worked under the slogan "Everything for front, everything for victory".


NEP AND STRATIFICATION OF THE PEASANTRY - STEPANYAN N. R.

The paper considers social-economic changes in Armenia in 1920, caused by the implementation of the new economic policy known as NEP. The policy’s main goal was to restore the economy of the country and to save its population from starvation.
Upon its implementation, this agrarian policy sharply decreased the number of poor peasants and labourers, made the peasants of average means form the majority in the villages, and ousted the wealthy kulaks both from the economic and social-political fields.


THE EVOLUTION AND HISTORICAL PERSPEKTIVE OF THE PROPERTY AND APPROPRIATION FOEMS - MARZPANYAN H. A.

The way of reproduction of people’s vital activities, as a public expression of their existence, forms the economic contents of the historical forms of property. We should distinguish between: 1) the property categories, signifying the historical types of the forms of production (individual, private, public) and 2) the property categories, implying the level of socialization (individual and collective).
Private (private-labour and private-capitalistic) property is a form of production estranging the labour individual, thus expressing the historically determined way of the appropriation of life goods, i. e. a goods production. The private property stands out as a historically constraining form of the realization of individual’s humanistic essence. Being the ultimate expression of free cooperation of economic labour, it can be abolished only through the abolition of economic labour itself. It is a function of the scientific progress, rather than right.


ON SOME PECULIARITIES OF MICROECONOMICS (scientific and methodological aspect) - TOROSYAN K. A., DILOYAN S. A.

As a purpose-built activity, economics seeks to meet consumer demands in the society. In this light, its study implies the application of methods of the sequence of functions in the system of economic relations comprising production, allocation, and exchange. We consider it expedient to begin the study of economic relations with those screws that make up the foundation of human activities. In this respect, microeconomics underlies the economies in all countries and at all times.
With the rise and development of market mechanisms, the microeconomic layer feeds on meso, micro, and macroeconomic relations. One can hardly imagine the development of trade and monetary relations, as well as the rise of free and other markets beyond microeconomic relations.


THE PROCESS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS IN RA - AZIZBEKYAN V. S.

The fact that the business cannot be developed normally and be competitive without integration into the global business environment in the 21st century, is obvious. The international financial crisis has shown the importance and necessity of high-quality financial reporting standards that will allow forecasting more precisely the probable risks of crisis in the economy and will also serve as a unique bridge among the companies all over the world. The above is especially true for Armenian companies which, because of reasons known to all of us, must overcome additional difficulties associated with closed borders and too limited domestic market. It can be inferred that the integration into the global business environment for Armenian entrepreneurs is a vital necessity. One of the locomotives on the way forward in this difficult but important matter can be adoption of international financial reporting standards (IFRS). Especially useful may be international standards designed specifically for small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) which will simplify the work of SMEs engaged in international business and will help to cooperate with foreign partners from equal positions.
Sooner or later, our entrepreneurs must realize that only a transparent and efficient work, based on the principles of corporate governance, may open the doors to world business community for them. When this understanding will be achieved, then they themselves, without fear of any sanctions by the government, would adopt IFRS and deal with their partners all over the world in the modern language of international business.


THE DEFINITION, ROLE AND THE GOALS OF FINANCIAL AALYSIS IN THE MARKET ECONOMY - SIMONYAN V. V.

The role of the financial analysis was emphasized by the recent economic crisis. The financial stability and profitability of the company overlap with the interests of many stakeholders such as suppliers and customers, shareholders and employees, government bodies, etc. In the meantime, along with development and sophistication of the markets and company operations it becomes more and more inefficient to perform financial analysis only based on the traditional methods and tools. This is when the statistical methods are useful.
The article briefly describes the theoretical approaches to financial analysis, and presents some examples of statistical approaches, which, if applied in Armenian organizations, may lead to more efficient analytical practice.


THE GUARANTEE OF THE INDIVIDUAL’S LEGITIMA TE INTERESTS IN CRIMINAL PROCEDURE - DILBANDYAN S. A.

Besides the individual’s rights and freedoms, legitimate interests are also foreseen in criminal-procedural legislation. It means that the legitimate interest is not only a theoretical category but is also exercised in the legislation. Prior to the individual’s procedural status definition by the legislator, the individual’s intentions concerning the criminal case are taken into consideration. Based on the legitimate interest significance it is considered as an obligatory element by the law specialists when defining the individual’s legal status. The clarification of an individual’s legitimate interests is of paramount importance, as it serves as a prerequisite for the further development of the procedural legal status of the participants of proceeding and the expansion of their rights. The legitimate interests of different trial participants can have opposite directions thus fostering competition between them. So, it is evident that the guarantee of the legitimate interests is no less urgent than the guarantee of the rights and freedoms in Criminal Procedure. Hence, the legitimate interests create competition in Criminal Procedure. The conflict of legitimate interests of different trial participants constitutes the base of justice. Due to that the above mentioned participants ground their attitude.


LOGICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN COMPOUND PROPOSITIONS AND THEIR FEATURES - KOCHARYAN H. J.

In the history of logic an acute attention has been paid to the problem of relations among propositions. Aristotle was the first who comprehensively studied this problem, representing formulations of logical relationships among propositions, but Aristotle did not investigate logical relations among compound propositions. Later on many authors, anyhow, investigated some types of relations /in particular equivalence/ among compound propositions, and the problem of negation of compound propositions. In 1980-s Kirillov and Starchenko dealt with the problem in their logic textbook. Nowadays there is not a complete study of the problem /anyway there are not references to any such research of the problem/. In this paper the author exhibits the system of logical relations (called “oppositions”) among compound propositions and reveals some features of these relationships. For mnemonic representation of logical relationships among compound propositions a diagram in the form of circle is presented (naming it a “logical circle).


SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO DETERMINING THE MIDDLE CLASS (the Description of the Contemporary Middle Class in the Republic of Armenia) - MELKUMYAN YU.G.

The boundary that distinguishes middle class from the elite is undoubtedly present in Armenian society. But it has to be fixed using the accurately developed methods of yearly monitoring, which makes possible to describe the characteristics of that boundary highly authentic. As the relatively firm characteristics of middle class the high educational level, professionalism, stable income, specific system of values and life style may be defined.
Summarizing it may be said, that the middle class in our society is multilayered enough. It is based mainly on the economic characteristics and specific life style, until the pro-governmental political orientation of middle class is dubious enough. But the education and occupation are getting more and more importance as the class-forming factors. In general the Armenian middle class acquires the functions of “social spine” or “stabilization” in the economical, political and social spheres.


INTERNATIONAL LABOR MIGRATION IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION - ARAQELYAN I. A.

In the end of 20th century globalization became the most important tendency in the development of the world. One of the describing elements of globalization is migration. Nowadays the internationalization of economy and unequal development of the states bring to the formation of labor migration.
In the West economic literature the aspiration, to explain both the motives, causes and results of international labor migration for the world, for donor and recipient countries, has created numerous theories. The theories of international labor migration conclude individual structural approaches and are based on a systemic approach. However, these theories are separated and unfortunately all the undertaking experiences to summarize them are still without result.
International labor migration has its positive and negative sides. The positive is that it promotes the quickened development of different spheres in the vital activity of a state, the mutual enrichment of cross-cultural and scientific and technical connections. But international labour migration influences negatively on economic, scientific and mental
potential of the state.


THE GENDER IDENTITY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SOCIAL-POLITICAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF ARMENIAN SOCIETY - KHACHATRYAN S. E.

The comparative analysis of the soviet and post-soviet gender discourses shows that in the conditions of the socialistic society processes of the gender identifications were interpreted predominantly within the limits of the concept "soviet citizenship". Accordingly, the policy of gender identity has been directed on realization of the sociopolitical, economic and ideological purposes of the soviet states, as a whole. The gender discourse of the transition period of the Armenian society, in comparison with previous, differs in the social policy liberalization in this sphere, and also in diversification of the gender approaches which however frequent mutual exclude each other, and in this sense the Armenian society faces to a dilemma of traditional and innovative gender values and norms.


THE ISSUES OF POPULATION SOCIAL PROTECTION IN ARTSAKH (2000-2006) - ABRAHAMYAN H. B.

During the years of the Artsakh war the economy of the country had almost decayed and it had its very negative impact on the social aspects and living standards of the people. The measures undertaken by the Artsakh authorities during the secondd half of the 1990s gathered momentum in 2000-2006. During this period a number of steps were undertaken to improve the living standards, to open working places, to develop the housing construction, to liven up the educational and cultural life, to help the vulnerable groups in particular, the families of those wounded or killed during the Artsakh war as well as to solve other essential problems. The Republic of Armenia and the diaspora played an essential role in those activities.


PUN IN JORA (GEVORG) HARUTUNYAN’S COMEDY GHAZAR GOES TO WAR - TER-MINASYAN A. A.

The pun in the comedy of Jora (Gevork) Harutunyan "Ghazar goes to war" - one of the highlight Armenian playist - consisting of a number of mistaken perceptions of puns, homonyms, synonyms giving the work an unrepeatable stylistic colouring.
The art of dramatic word in the analysed play, equally like in the rest of other works of J. Harutunyan, up today does not appear to be a subject of special investigation, at the same time this play and the artistic drama wholly appears to be an unreadable space for the linguistic investigations.


SYMBOLISM IN THE WORK BY YEGISHE CHARENTS - ZULUMYAN B. S. (RF, Moscow)

The early period's cycles of Egishe Charents' works "The vision hours", "The Land of Flame", "The rainbow", "The street woman of fashion" are actually symbolist by nature and are of no less significance than all the following poetic masterpieces.
The poet uses already known motifs and images and creates his own system of symbols: The Flame, The Sun, the hetaera dream, the Blue-eyed motherland, the blue girl, the color images of Golden, Blue and Purple.


THE NARRATOR IN GURGEN MAHARI'S PROSE - AGHAJANYAN S. A.

As every work fiction also can’t be more significiant, peculiar than is the author with natural endowments, life-experience, mental-creative abilities. So the work is equal to the author and to study each work is an experience to get acquainted with the sense of the work and the author.
This is very important with G. Mahari as the author’s active and various presence in his work is peculiar to his style. One way to express it is to interfere into the novel during its creation. The other way is the author’s permanent presence in the fiction time. This is expressed in a skill of making natural, frank speech, in his manner of a “guide” in described artistic world, in stylistic devices with which the author expresses loud speech and thoughts of the heroes.


THE MAN AS THE SUPREME ACTOR IN GR. NAREKATSI’S PHILOSOPHY - MARGARYAN M. M., ZAKARYAN M. G.

The problem of the man is in the basis of the founder of Armenian Renaissance Gr. Narekatsi’s (951-1003) conception. Being the bearer and spokesman of social-political relations reigning at that time, Gr. Narekatsi studies the man’s essence, his moral make-up, love of mankind conditioned by his attitude to the ones like him. The greatest representative of the national literature reveals the man in the light of multidimentional love philosophy, at the same time attaching importance to multidimension of space and time.


THE IMAGE OF AN ARMENIAN IN THE CONTEMPORARY IRANIAN LITERATURE - SAFRASTYAN L. M.

The Armenians are known to the world as a nation of rich culture and have a left rich culture legacy in every corner of Armenian Diasporas. As a peaceful people, gifted with talent, thought and soul Armenians have found their unique portrayal in world literature, especially in the works of modern Iranian writers. Notable among the Iranian authors whose works reveal as a search light the deepest qualities of Armenian character are M. Ali Jamalzadeh, Sadegh Hedayat, Bozorg Alavi, Ahmad Shamlu.
The image of an Armenian worth notice in the works of renowned post revolutionary Iranian fiction writers as Muniru Ravanipur, Farkhondeh Aghai, Zoya Pirzad, Ibrahim Hasanbeigi, Shahrnush Parsipur.


JANE EYRE AND SRPUHI DUSSAP’S MAYDA - AKTOKMAKYAN MARAL (Turkey, Istanbul)

Two nineteenth–century women; Charlotte Brontë (1818 - 1848) and Srpuhi Dussap (1840-1901). Both were woman novelists… Yet, they initiated a female language through their writings, even though they came from different socio-historical, cultural and geographical backgrounds. It is known that Srpuhi Dussap, the first Ottoman-Armenian woman novelist, was highly influenced by French literature and particularly by a French woman writer Georges Sand who was the most influential name affecting her as a writer. Still, if writings, as mere literary discursive productions, are concerned, Bronte and Dussap, reveal an intriguing fact on the ground of feminist literature. Despite the fact that they did not seem to have influenced one another, what they have in common is that both attempted to find out a female language. And since woman was a victim of the patriarchal construct and had no right to write as a woman, any woman writer in the nineteenth century had to use a cryptical language in order to narrate something out of the patriarchal context.
Both writers used Romanticism in their novels for a certain common reason. Charlotte Brontë’s novel Jane Eyre seems at first sight to be a story of a governess within the background of the nineteenth century England. The protagonist experiences numerous hardships and her romantic affair with the landlord ends happily after various social and sexual frustrations and conflicts.
Stylistically, the structures of both novels are at odds since Mayda is an epistolary novel while Jane Eyre uses first person narration and an attempt at the novel as a female Bildungsroman. Although the distinction is clear-cut, there is an intrinsic parallel between the two types of narration. That is, although Mayda’s discourse – openly as well as covertly- is posited upon the epistolary, still as a whole the novel suggests how it cannot be a Bildungsroman, or, in other words, exemplifies how/why the Armenian woman cannot have or gain a voice, a story, an identity, an authorship on/of her own. On the contrary, Brontë is said to have attempted to write a novel in the epistolary style, in hopes that she could allude to Richardson’s Pamela but eventually her failure made her write in the first person. Her use of “Reader” ceases to serve conventional narrative rules and functions as a substitute form of an epistolary novel. Thus, mirror reflections of both novels’ styles overlap each other in a reversal that the reader of palimpsest is much accustomed to.





THE BIBLICAL SOURCES IN WILLIAM SAROYAN'S WORK - TONOYAN S. H.

The book of the books-the Holy had great influence on the works of William Saroyan, as he started himself. He has the universal truth that without God the world is casual and senseless. Saroyan arises eternal values and slogans, speaks about love, kindness, sympathy. In his system of humanity and morality he endeavors to find the ways to happiness and freedom, justice and honesty, ideals of beauty and harmony by means of both existentialism and reflections. The writer condemns the evil, moral degradation of human being, distortion of human image, violence, hatred, disharmony of life in all its displays.
Saroyan`s heroes are abandoned, humiliated, hapless, deprived, people who need to be sympathized and consoled. Speaking about these wonderful people the writer points out their spiritual beauty, firmness, the ability to self-sacrifice for the loved one.
The great writer does not struggle with God. He does not complain before God, does not argue with him. Like the prophet he informs people a word Divine and the consolation, theaches them the good and conscience.


INNER PROSPECTS OF A POETIC TEXT (On Some Structural Issues of the Armenian Poetry in the 1970-s) - MUSAELYAN H. G.

The poetic generation of Armenia of 70th of theХХ century, unlike its direct predecessors, prefers classical poetry, aspiring to interchangeability of tradition and an innovation. In the given typology G.Saruhan, A.Mouses, E.Militonyan, G.Sirunyan, G.Tamrazyan's products especially have caused a stir, in mutual relations of an internal system of which the word aspires to overcome the initial value, getting allegoric sense.
By means of the given typological kind the spiritual information takes root into a new plane of code conversion, revealing new layers of self-disclosing therefore the secret sense of a poem is reached.
Using a similar artistic touch, actually, the mentioned generation has managed to keep chain system of development of poetry, having provided that its distribution and time.


STYLISTIC MEANING OF PHRASEOLOGISMS IN HAMO SAHYAN’S POETRY - YERZNKYAN R.A.

Great master in word Hamo Sahyan in his poetic work often used phraseological expressions which gave the word metaphorical shade. The bigger part of phraseologisms used by him has folk-lore basis, besides there are phraseologisms-neologisms created by the poet himself.


WORD NAMES OF THE CONCEPT "RAKER" IN THE ARMENIAN DIALECTS - ABRAHAMYAN A. A.

Raker occupies an important place in agricultural works that has different word names in Armenian dialects – p'oc'x, c'ak'an, tap'an, mankerù, sandr, akrùan, kakrùan, čankrùik, galbari, alak‘eš, krùant‘i, k'arùešt, grabli, trmux, k‘ameli, etc.
Some of the above mentioned word names are examined in the article, some words and word combinations formed from them and based on 500 Armenian dialects are represented and are given areal description.
Among subdialects word names p'oc'x (200 subdialects), trmux (70), mankerù (43), čankrùik (42) grabli (34) (in their phonetic versions) have a wider diffusion, word names kakrùan (16), c'ak'an (11) have limited (restricted) diffusion, word names sandr (5), akrùan (5), k'arùešt (4) k‘ameli (2) etc. refer to the number of names that occur rarely.


THE FOLKLORE PARALLELS OF THE TRAGEDY ROMEO AND JULIET - HOVHANNISYAN T. B.

Authors’ writings can comprise folklore elements. Shakespeare’s ‘Romeo and Juliet’ also has such aspects.
The main source of Shakespeare’s tragedy is Arthur Brooke’s ‘The Tragical Historye of Romeus and Juliet’. The folklore parallels of the tragedy can be found in the culture of different countries. The following writings are considered to be ‘Romeo and Juliet’ of different countries: ‘Bosko Brkic and Admira Ismic’ (Sarajevo), ‘Jayaprana and Layonsari’ (Bali), ‘Laila and Maj¬noo’ (India), ‘Sassi and Punnoo’ (India), ‘Heer and Ranjha’ (India). Ovid’s ‘Pyramus and Thisbe’ also includes such elements.
The unifying theme of the tragedy of ‘Romeo and Juliet’ and its folklore parallels is one: self-denying love.


YERVANT OSGAN AND HIS CONTRIBUTION TO THE PROFESSIONAL ARMENIAN AND TURKISH SCULPTURE - AGHASYAN A.V.

It is hard to imagine the cultural life in Istanbul at the end of the XIX century and the beginning of the XX century without Yervant Osgan’s (1855-1914) creative and educational work.
Having received his education in Italy and France, he became the first professional sculptor widely known not only among the Armenians but the Turks as well. Osgan created a number of remarkable portraits, genre compositions, decorative sculptures, statues, as well as vivid pictures, most of which are housed in the collections of Yerevan and Istanbul.
Osgan first became popular in 1878, when he restored the so-called sarcophagus of Alexander the Great. The sarcophagus had been discovered during the archaeological excavations at Saida (to the South of present Lebanon). Later, together with Turkish archaeologist and painter Osman Hamdi Bey, who was also the Head of the Archaeological Museum, Osgan conducted excavations at Mount Nemrud. Later, they reported the results of their work in the book “Le Tumulus de Nemroud-Dagh” (Istanbul, 1883), published in French.
Osgan was one of the founders of the School of Fine Arts in Turkey (the foundation laying ceremony was held on March 1, 1882). At school, he had been a professor of sculpture by the end of his life and in 1909 assumed the post of the deputy director.
Due to his productive creative and teaching work, Osgan contributed not only to the development of the cultural life in the vastly-populated Armenian community of the city but to the revival of the Turkish art on the whole. One can hardly deny Osgan’s contribution to the education of such Turkish sculptors as Ihsan Özsoy, Isa Behzat, Basri, Mesur Izzet, Mehmet Bahri, Mahi Tomruk and others.


STELES IN ARMENIA AND GEORGIA: ON COMMON CULTURAL ASPECTS IN THE EARLY-CHRISTIAN PERIOD - HAKOBYAN Z. A.

The development of the early Christian sculpture in historical Armenia and Georgia displays a lot of similarities. A group of free standing monuments – pillars with reliefs dated back to the 6th and 7th centuries, are preserved here. French scientist Nicole Thierry was the first to pay attention to the commonness of Georgian and a group of Armenian steles, putting forward the problem of Gogaran school of sculpture. Indeed, the pillars from Gugark and Kartli are quite similar in composition and decoration, as well as in iconographic and artistic interpretation, as we can see on Odzun and Khandisi pillars. At the same time we can speak about the existence of several workshops within Gogaran school, according to their iconographic and decorative peculiarities. Besides the Odzun-Khandisi workshop we can mention the group, conditionally called Brdadzor. Up to present Armenian and Georgian scholars have tried to display the national origins of the pillars. But the tetrahedral steles in both countries reveal such a unity of artistic and symbolic ideas, that it would be scientifically more accurate to speak about the local and not national sources of these monuments.


ART GENRE IN THE PICTURES BY JOSEPH QARALYAN - MINASYAN M. P.

Tbilisi is one of the most ancient cities of the world. Tbilisi in many respects was destined to become center of a national-cultural life of Caucasian nations. This ancient city has played an outstanding role in the spiritual intimacy of Georgian and Armenian cultures.
Karalyan’s painting is very natural, simple and touching, it is pure as a confession, deprived of any falseness and coquettishness. The language of the artist, externally very accessible, conceals in depths the greater information and enormous life experience. Hovsep Karalyan is one of those masters of senior generation who have so enriched and "rehabilitated" the genre painting, that many artists, in particularly youth, have sharply changed their attitude to it.


СТОЛИЦА ТИГРАНАКЕРТ - ХАЧАТРЯН Ж. Д., АКОПЯН Н. Ф.

Политический, экономический и культурный подъем явился основой усиления могущества Армении в III-I вв. до н. э. Поэто-му не случайно в период царствования Тиграна II (95-55 гг. до н. э.) Армения вышла на широкую международную арену, став одной из могущественных стран Передней Азии. Тигран постро-ил в Ахдзнике столицу новой империи – Тигранакерт (конец 80-х гг. до н.э.), расположенный, согласно многим источникам, в районе верхнего течения р. Тигр. По другим же данным, Тигранакерт был локализован к северу от р. Тигр, некоторые же полагают, что столица находилась к югу от р. Тигр. На наш взгляд, из существующих точек зрения наиболее вероятной является версия Леманн Гаупта. Описание местности и города, ворота, сте-ны, строительный камень (известняк) характерны для архитектуры эллинистического периода. Немаловажным фактором является также наличие греческой надписи на одной из башен, однако окончательный ответ могут дать лишь археологические раскопки.


THE HAMSHEN ARMENIANS AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE ARMENIAN ETHNOS - KOCHAR N. H., MIRZOYAN K. P.

Recently a lot of research work has been carried out along the lines of different anthropological peculiarities of different territorial groups of the Armenian ethnos.
However, Hamshenian Armenians for well-known reasons remained beyond the scope of investigation for quite a long time.
The investigations studying Hamshenian Armenians living in Yerevan have established that the latter in no way differ from the total Armenian population. The research has brought out the fact of their immediate propinquity to the groups of Armenians from Western Armenia.


ARMIN WEGNER: GREAT - PHILANTHROPE AND CONTRIBUTOR TO ARMENIANS - STEPANYAN S. S.



WENN AUCH ARMIN WEGNER KEINE WERTEIDIGUNG BRAUCHT - MUSCHEGHIAN A. W.

In achtziger und neunziger Jahren vorigen Jahrhunderts ist Evangelischer Theologie Dr. Martin Tamcke mit einigen Artikeln und besonders mit einer Ha¬bilitationsschrift “ArminT. Wegner und Armenier. Anspruch und Wirklichkeit eines Augenzeugen” aufgetreten. Letztere wurde als Monographie 1993 und mit Ergänzungen 1996 herausgegeben in Hamburg.Gegenwärtig ist Dr. Martin Tamcke als Dekan an der Georg-August-Universität zu Göttingen tätig. Auf Grund neuer Dokumente aus dem Nachlaβ fon Wegner bezweckt der geehrter Professor der Evangelischen Theologie die Augenzeugenschaft Wegners als des unmittelbaren Zeugen der Vertreibung des armenischen Volkes in die Mesopo¬tamischen Wüsten und seinen Massenmord 19I5/I6 zu verleugmen. In diesen Jahren diente Wegner Doktor der Jurisprudenz und Verfasser einiger Gedichts¬sammlungen, als einfacher Sanitätssoldat und Unterleutnant beim deutschen Militärstabe des 6.Türkischen Armee unter dem Feldmarschall von der Goltz in Bagdad. Sodaβ sein Wort als des Augenzeugen war und ist damals und jetzt auβerordentlich schwerwiegend für die Bestätigung des armenischen Genozids in der Osmanischen Türkei.
Dr. Tamcke legt groβen Wert auf den Unterschied zwischen den Kriegstage¬buchnotizen und den feröfentlichten Tagebuchtexten, um die Augenzeugen¬schaft Wegners für die Armeniergreuel und Massenmord abculehnen. Doch seine Vergleiche und Behauptungen solcher Art sind groβenteils überzeugend. Die Hauptidee der Habilitationsschrift und der Monographie ist das Ziel des Autors, nach der Verleugnung des armenischen Genozids auch den groβen Kämpfer gegen Tyranei und Völkermord zu verleumden, dessen Augenzeugenschaft als die des Doktors der Jurisprudenz und des Publizisten besonders überzeugend und darum gefährlich ist. Für seine heftigen Protest im Briefe vom 11 April 1933 an den Reichskanzler Adolf Hitler gegen die Massenverfolgungen der Juden in Deuitschland wurde Armin Wegner in die Folterkammer geworfen und zur Emigration bezwungen.
Alle Beweise in dieser Untersuchung gegen die Augenzeugenschaft Wegners sind grundIos und bestehen keine Kritik. Konträre Bezeugnisse sind zahlreich. Allein die Briefe an die Krankenschwester Marga von Bonin vom 11.Oktober und 8. Januar 1917 genügen zu beweisen, daβ der junge, Armin Wegner, Doktor der Jurisprudenz und zugleich Sanitätssoldat, die Vertilgung und Vernichtung des vertriebenen armenischen Volkes mit eigenen Augen gesehen und erlitten hatte.
Wir konstatieren endlich mit groβer Befriedigung, daβ geehrter Professor Martin Tamcke das Hauptziel seiner Untersuchung nicht erreicht hat.


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